Cheltenham is about 20km south-east of Melbourne's CBD. The suburb is split between two local councils – the City of Kingston and the City of Bayside. Cheltenham railway station is on the Frankston line, at Charman Road.
Facilities include the massive Southland Shoppingtown, Victoria Golf Club and the Royal Melbourne Golf Club.
The Nepean Highway cuts through Cheltenham. Neighbouring suburbs include Moorabbin, Sandringham, Black Rock, Beaumaris and Heatherton.